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Yes, the first option is right. The second isn't necessarily wrong; it's just not our style. The fourth option is fine, too. I wouldn't use the third.

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Leadership and management effectiveness has been discussed, studied and taught ...  (effectiveness has been discussed, etc.)

Identifying and cultivating these habits and practices (or recruiting people who possess them) is necessary

Fish and wildlife management is complex and budgets are shrinking

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We wouldn't use caps in that use.


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Yes, three in-town billboards.

No hyphens in the titles of lists presented as you describe.

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How about this instead:

You can bring one personal bag and sleeping bag/pillow. Tip: Tie them together!


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Yes, that's fine.

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I think red meat is understandable as a term and this is clear with just one hyphen: red meat-based diet.

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We prefer former, but ex- is fine too. Ex- is especially helpful in headlines, where space is at a premium. Both former and ex- can apply to anyone who previously held the position.

Here's the entry:

ex- 

Use no hyphen for words that use ex- in the sense of out of:
excommunicate | expropriate
Hyphenate when using ex- in the sense of former:
ex-convict | ex-president
Do not capitalize ex- when attached to a formal title before a name: ex-President Richard Nixon. The prefix modifies the entire term: ex-New York Gov. Mario Cuomo; not New York ex-Gov.
Usually former is better.


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Ýes, that's correct. 

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Use his full name and title in every story. You can't assume that readers will read all three stories, or that they will read them in order. Or that they would remember the full name and title from one story to the next.


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You are correct in every example!

Both of these are correct. The addition of the article a in the second example makes for a different construction:

This course was led by Central High School alumnus and former Phantom cast member John Smith.
This course was led by a Central High School alumnus and former Phantom cast member, John Smith.

And your two IBM examples are right.


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It's TMS' 

Here's the rule:

SINGULAR PROPER NAMES ENDING IN S: Use only an apostrophe: Achilles' heel, Agnes' book, Ceres' rites, Descartes' theories, Dickens' novels, Euripides' dramas, Hercules' labors, Jesus' life, Jules' seat, Kansas' schools, Moses' law, Socrates' life, Tennessee Williams' plays, Xerxes' armies.


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Thanks. We'll fix it in the pronunciation guide.

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Thanks! I hadn't had a chance to research that yet. I've added it to our list of issues to discuss.

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Here's the entry:

ratios 


Use figures and hyphens: the ratio was 2-to-1, a ratio of 2-to-1, a 2-1 ratio, 1 in 4 voters. As illustrated, the word to should be omitted when the numbers precede the word ratio.Always use the word ratio or a phrase such as a 2-1 majority to avoid confusion with actual figures.

So it's 1 in 7 adults suffer from mental illness. If at the start of a sentence: One in 7 adults, since we almost always spell out numbers at the start of a sentence.

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Yes, I'd use T-zone following the T-shirt style. 

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Yes, there should be a comma after the name. This entry provides the general guidance.

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It's walk-through as both a noun and an adjective, according to Webster's New World College Dictionary. As a verb: walk through.

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Yes.

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We don't use those terms as nouns. If they're common as nouns for your particular audiences, you might decide those uses are OK for your readers.

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I'd recast it. On first read it could be confusing as you have it written. And adding the second comma doesn't work before the hyphen. 

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Two words. 

Question from on Dec. 04, 2019

Hi in this entry about "fiscal year", could I please ask for a ruling on whether the first or second example is correct? Is the correct abbreviation FY20-22 or FY20-FY22? Thanks!

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As that entry notes, we use fiscal year in AP style, not FY.  So we don't have a style for any version of FY plus a year or a shortened year. Freedom to do what you want!

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It's a little hard to tell without knowing that ABC and XYZ are. But generally, you seek membership in something.

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Presumably you're giving the full context (and the amputation is relevant to the story). Something like: His legs were amputated above the knee after a 2005 motorcycle crash. I can't think of a situation in which have been would work.

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From the Pronunciation Guide

Kyiv

KEE'-yeev

Capital of Ukraine (new spelling and pronunciation)

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Impeachment Inquiry Topical Guide

To help with coverage of the impeachment inquiry, The Associated Press has prepared a guide with key background, explanation and style points. WHAT'S HAPPENING For only the fourth time in U.S....


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